Ion Indicators

Ion Indicators

The maintenance of asymmetric cellular concentrations of inorganic cations and anions is a function of living cells. Homeostatic regulation of these ionic concentrations is critical for most cellular functions, and developing probes to measure ionic concentrations with both spatial and temporal resolution is critical in research ranging from drug discovery to studies of neuronal function. 

Calcium Indicators

Intracellular Ca2+ plays a central role in cellular processes ranging from neuronal signaling and exocytosis to muscle contraction and bone formation. The fluorescent Ca2+ indicators have been widely used to study the role of Ca2+ in a specific cellular process.We has developed a number of calcium indicators to track Ca2+ concentrations with intense fluorescent signals and a range of wavelength options.

U2OS cells were seeded in a 96-well plate overnight, then incubated with Fluo-4 AM, followed by imaging with a fluorescence microscope using FITC channel.

Fluo-2, AMCalcium indicatorCell-permeant Ca2+ indicator, Kd: 230 nM, Ex/Em=488/515 nm
Fluo-3, AMCalcium indicatorCell-permeant Ca2+ indicator, Kd: 390 nM, Ex/Em = 488/525 nm
Fluo-4, AMCalcium indicatorCell-permeant Ca2+ indicator, Kd: 345 nM, Ex/Em = 494/506 nm
Rhod-2, AMCalcium indicatorCell-permeant Ca2+ indicator, Kd: 570 nM, Ex/Em = 550/578 nm
CoelenterazineCalcium indicatorBioluminescent substrate for luciferases, used for calcium
detection and the monitoring of reporter genes.

Membrane Potential Indicators

Membrane potential plays a central role in many physiological processes, including nerve-impulse propagation, muscle contraction, and cell signaling. Potentiometric probes are important tools for studying these processes and are generally characterized as slow- or fast-response probes. The fast-response probes change their electronic structure, and consequently their fluorescence properties, in response to changes in the surrounding electric field. The response is fast enough to detect transient (millisecond) potential changes in excitable cells, including single neurons, cardiac cells, and intact brains. However, the magnitude of their potential-dependent fluorescence change is often small (2–10 % fluorescence change per 100 mV). The slow-response probes function by entering depolarized cells and binding to proteins or membranes, and exhibit enhanced fluorescence and a red spectral shift. Fast-response probes are commonly used to image electrical activity from intact heart tissues or measure membrane potential changes in response to pharmacological stimuli. Slow-responding probes are often used to explore mitochondrial function and cell viability.

ProductResponse typeRangeResponse timeEx/Em (nm)
JC-1Slow-response1% per 1 mV20 ms514/529; 585/590
DiOC6(3)Slow-response1% per 1 mV20 ms485/500
Di-4-ANEPPSFast-response2–10% per 100 mVSub-millisecond482/686
Di-8-ANEPPSFast-response2–10% per 100 mVSub-millisecond467/631
RH 795Fast-response2–10% per 100 mVSub-millisecond486/689

Chloride Indicators

Intracellular Cl plays a central role in cellular processes. The fluorescent Cl indicators have been widely used to measure intracellular Cl concentrations and the study of Cl channels. We have developed a number of chloride indicators to track intracellular Cl concentrations.

ProductMolecular WeightAbs (nm)Em (nm)ɛ (cm-1M-1)Ksv (M-1)

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